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Texas Native
Venomous & Non-venomous Snakes!

Texas has four out of the five US snake families:

Old World fixed front fang snakes (Elapidae) - the largest group
Advanced snakes (Colubridae)
Slender blind snakes (Leptotyphlopidae)
New World Pit vipers - subgroup of the Viper Family (Viperidae), the hinge-fanged snakes

There are no Boas (Boidae) in Texas.

Venomous Snakes in Texas

Rattlesnakes, Copperheads, Cottonmouths (Water Moccasins) and Coral Snakes.

What To Do & What Not To Do For Snake Bite Victims: The following information can be found at the:
Zoonosis Venomous Texas Snakes Control Division

The rattle is the most distinguishing feature of the rattlesnake. The horny section at the end of the tail is used to scare off intruders. The rattle of the snake will gain a new section after each molt. The age of a rattlesnake cannot be determined by counting the sections of the rattle because the snake might have shed more than once per year and part of it could have broken off. You can distinguish whether the snake is a juvenile or an adult by the shape of the sections of the rattle. In the picture above, the rattle sections are all symmetrical in size and do not taper down indicating that this snake is an adult.

All rattlesnakes are born alive.

Diamond Back

(Crotalus atrox)


(Crotalus viridus viridus)

or Canebrake

(Crotalus horridus)

Western Pygmy

(Sistrurus miliarius streckeri)

Northern Blacktail

(Crotalus molossus molossus)


(Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus)

Mottled Rock

(Crotalus lepidus lepidus)

Banded Rock

(Crotalus lepidus klauberi)

Western Massasauga

(Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus)

Desert Massasauga

(Sistrurus catenatus edwardsi)

The photos below are an example of a recent Copperhead bite victim. He was bitten on the finger and was treated in an emergency room. Even though he received medical care his finger is permanently crippled. This man is fortunate that the outcome wasn't a lot worse!

The Copperhead
There are five recognized subspecies of this pit viper. The photos below show the three that are native to Texas:

Southern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix)
Northern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen)
Broad-Banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus)
Trans-Pecos Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster)
Osage Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster)


(Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus)

Southern Copperhead

(Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix)


(Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster)

The Cottonmouth (Water Moccasin)
(Agkistrodon piscivorus)

The Cottonmouth resides mainly in the southeastern United States.

or Water Moccasin

(Agkistrodon piscivorus)

The Coral Snake

Approximately 40-50 species of venomous coral snakes exist in North and South America, with the greatest variety from Mexico to northern South America. A number of African and Asian coral snake species also exist. Coral Snakes belong to the family Elapidae that also has, as its members, cobras, kraits, taipans, and mambas.

In the United States there are 2 different genera of Corals. The monotypic genus Micruroides that is the Arizona Coral Snake (Micruroides euryxanthus), and the genus Micrurus, which contains Micrurus fulvius fulvius (the Eastern Coral Snake) and Micrurus fulvius tenere (the Texas Coral Snake).

Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern Coral snake) and Micrurus fulvius tenere (Texas Coral snake) are the most important species in the United States.

Other than the Texas Scarlet & Northern Scarlet (Mimic Coral snakes), there are more that can be found in parts of Texas; the New Mexico (L. t. celaenops), Central Plains (L. t. gentilis), Mexican Milk Snake (Lampropeltis triangulum annulata), Louisiana Milk Snake (L. t. amaura).
More Details About Mimic Snakes

"Red and yellow, kill a fellow; red and black, friend of Jack." Thus, YELLOW-RED-YELLOW = Coral Snake; BLACK-RED-BLACK = mimic snake.

It is important to note that there are some Mimic Coral snakes that have black heads just like the Coral Snakes.

Texas Coral Snake

(Micrurus fulvius tener)

Eastern Coral Snake

(Micrurus fulvius fulvius)

Photo Not Available
Texas Scarlet
Mimic Coral Snake
(Cemophora coccinea lineri)

Northern Scarlet

Mimic Coral Snake
(Cemophora coccinea copei)

Texas Native Non-Venomous Snakes
See Photos & Detailed Info Here

Leptotyphlopidae (Blind Snakes)
Leptotyphlops (Blind Snakes)
Leptotyphlops dulcis (Texas Blind Snake)
Leptotyphlops humilis (Trans-Pecos Blind Snake)
Arizona (Glossy Snakes)
Arizona elegans (Eastern Glossy Snake)
Bogertophis subocularis (Trans-Pecos Rat Snake)
Carphophis (Worm Snakes)
Carphophis vermis (Western Worm Snake)
Cemophora (Scarlet Snakes)
Cemophora coccinea (Scarlet Snake)
Coluber (Racers)
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)
Coniophanes imperialis (Black-striped Snake)
Diadophis (Ringneck Snakes)
Diadophis punctatus (Ringneck Snake)
Drymarchon (Indigo Snakes)
Drymarchon corais (Texas Indigo Snake)
Drymobius margaritiferus (Speckled Racer)
Elaphe (Rat Snakes)
Elaphe bairdi (Baird's Rat Snake)
Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake)
Elaphe guttata (Corn Snake)
Elaphe obsoleta (Eastern Rat Snake)
Farancia (Mud and Rainbow Snakes)
Farancia abacura (Mud Snake)
Ficimia streckeri (Mexican Hooknose Snake)
Gyalopion canum (Western Hooknose Snake)
Heterodon (Hognose Snakes)
Heterodon nasicus (Western Hognose Snake)
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)
Hypsiglena (Night Snakes)
Hypsiglena torquata (Night Snake)
Lampropeltis (Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes)
Lampropeltis alterna (Gray-banded Kingsnake)
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)
Lampropeltis getula (Common Kingsnake)
Lampropeltis triangulum (Milk Snake)
Leptoderia septentrionalis (Northern Cat-eyed Snake)
Liochlorophis vernalis (Smooth Green Snake)
Masticophis (Coachwhip Snakes and Whipsnakes)
Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip Snake)
Masticophis schotti (Schott's Whipsnake)
Masticophis taeniatus (Striped Whipsnake)
Nerodia (Water Snakes)
Nerodia clarkii (Gulf Salt Marsh Snake)
Nerodia cyclopion (Mississippi Green Water Snake)
Nerodia erythrogaster (Plainbelly Water Snake)
Nerodia fasciata (Southern Water Snake)
Nerodia harteri (Brazos Water Snake)
Nerodia paucimaculata (Concho Water Snake)
Nerodia rhombifer (Diamondback Water Snake)
Opheodrys (Green Snakes)
Opheodrys aestivus (Rough Green Snake)
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)
Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake)
Regina (Crayfish Snakes)
Regina grahamii (Graham's Crayfish Snake)
Regina rigida (Gulf Crayfish Snake)
Rhinocheilus (Longnose Snakes)
Rhinocheilus lecontei (Longnose Snake)
Salvadora (Patchnose Snakes)
Salvadora deserticola (Big Bend Patchnose Snake)
Salvadora grahamiae (Mountain Patchnose Snake)
Sonora (Ground Snakes)
Sonora semiannulata (Ground Snake)
Storeria dekayi (Brown Snake)
Storeria occipitomaculata (Redbelly Snake)
Tantilla atriceps (Mexican Blackhead Snake)
Tantilla cucullata (Big Bend Blackhead Snake)
Tantilla gracilis (Flathead Snake)
Tantilla hobartsmithi (Southwestern Blackhead Snake)
Tantilla nigriceps (Plains Blackhead Snake)
Thamnophis (Garter and Ribbon Snakes)
Thamnophis cyrtopsis (Blackneck Garter Snake)
Thamnophis marcianus (Checkered Garter Snake)
Thamnophis proximus (Western Ribbon Snake)
Thamnophis radix (Plains Garter Snake)
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)
Trimorphodon biscutatus (Lyre Snake)
Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake)
Virginia (Earth Snakes)
Virginia striatula (Rough Earth Snake)
Virginia valeriae (Western Earth Snake)